philosopher Peirce and the linguist Saussure developed the ideas for which we call semiotics.
the semiotic theory suggests communication is the production of meaning.
semiotics // learning of the meaning of signs and symbols
sign // something that indicates something else; two levels: denotation and connotation
icon // physically represents the thing it signifies
index // a reference to figure out the object from the signs
symbol // subjective, learned representations for ideas
signifier // the physical form of a sign
signified // the idea indicated by the sign
syntagm // a sequence of units that have a particular linear relationship to one another
paradigm // units in a set have familiar characteristics; pattern or model for the syntactic roles of a set
code // a culturally approved set of signs
polysemy // coexistence of different meanings for one particular thing